The Panel Survey on Korea’s Local Elections of 2006

The Panel Survey on Korea’s Local Elections of 2006

Conducted by East Asia Institute (EAI), Seoul Broadcasting Station (SBS), Joong-Ang Ilbo and Hankook Research

Dates Conducted

April 26-29, 2006: 1st Local Survey
May 10-11, 2006: 1st National Survey
May 18-19, 2006: 2nd Local Survey
May 24-26, 2006: 3rd Local Survey
June 1-2, 2006: 4th Local Survey
June 4-5, 2006: 2nd National Survey

Dates Released

The panel survey data were cited and published in numerous news reports and articles of the Seoul Broadcasting Station (SBS) and Joong-Ang Ilbo between late April and early June of 2006.

Methodology

The panel survey method is designed to monitor changes in voters’ attitudes towards candidates and campaign agenda as well as causes of those changes. Unlike other survey methods, a panel survey asks the same questions to the same respondents (panels) at different times, thereby tracking changes in opinion sensitive to developments and issues that have emerged between surveys. A panel survey method, however, requires a careful research design and management to retain a sufficient number of respondents in each survey and control diverse variables that could have influenced voters’ opinions between surveys.

This research on Korea’s local election in 2006 was the first rigorous attempt to conduct a panel survey in Korea. To undertake this challenging project, a consortium was set up in which EAI, SBS, Joong-Ang Ilbo, and Hankook Research participated.

Local Panel Survey

Among registered residents, groups to be sampled were initially stratified by region, age, and gender. Then, using the CATI (Computer-Aided Telephone Interview) method, appropriate respondents were sampled from randomly selected households. Eventually, the groups of respondents aged 19 and older were set up in four regions – Seoul, Busan, Kwangju, and Chungnam Province.

The Number of respondents in the Local Survey Panels (Aged 19 and older)

Local Survey 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 1-2* 1-3** 1-4***
Date conducted 4/29 5/19 5/26 6/2 (%) (%) (%)
Seoul 818 670 646 626 82 79 77
Busan 773 667 631 614 86 82 79

* The percentage of those who remained in the second panel survey (from the beginning).
** The percentage of those who remained in the third survey.
*** The percentage of those who remained in the final survey.

National Panel Survey

1,299 respondents aged 19 and older were surveyed nationwide and 1,001 of them remained for the second survey. Respondents in the National Panel Survey were sampled in the same way as those in local surveys.
The Number of Respondents in the National Survey Panels (Aged 19 and older)

1st Survey (5/10~11): 1,299
2nd Survey (6/5): 1,001

The percentage of the remaining participants: 77%

Key Issues

  • Public perception on South Korea’s policy priorities
  • Public perception about capabilities and performance of each political party
  • Party approval ratings over a period of time
  • The perceived reasons for the ruling party’s unprecedented defeat in the May 2006 local elections
  • Evaluation of President Roh’s job performance

Background

The local elections of 31 May 2006 ended in an unprecedented defeat of the ruling Uri party. Of 16 mayoral and gubernatorial posts, only one Uri party candidate was elected, while the leading opposition, the Grand National Party (GNP), secured 12 posts. Moreover, not a single Uri party candidate was elected to the 234 seats of ward assemblies and municipal parliaments in Seoul, Incheon, and Kyoungki province. The Uri party also suffered a loss of loyalty in its traditional strongholds, such as young voters and voters in the northern districts of Seoul.

In cooperation with SBS, Joong-Ang Ilbo, and Hankook Research, EAI followed voters’ favorability ratings towards each political party and candidate starting in April, and mapped out major determinants of the GNP’s landslide victory.

Link to Original Source

The East Asia Institute (EAI) in Seoul, Korea (http:// www.eai.or.kr)

The Mansfield Foundation translated into English part of the survey results and local survey data courtesy of EAI.

Extensive analyses on the survey results are underway at EAI. Mr. W.C. Jung of EAI can be reached at jwc@eai.or.kr for further questions on the survey data.

Disclaimer

The Mansfield Foundation is responsible for the translation of this East Asia Institute poll, subject to the Mansfield Foundation Terms of Use.

Survey

The First and Second Local Survey Research – Seoul/Busan

Seoul: 1st Local Survey Research (MoE: ± 3.4%)

Q1-1. What do you think the focus of the Korean National Agenda should be?

Economic
growth
Narrowing
the gap between
the rich
and the
poor
Employment
& job
security
Mitigating
ideological
polarization
Political
reform
Resolving
North
Korean nuclear
crisis
Balanced developments
between
Seoul and
local provinces
Other Don’t
know
/No response
Total
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)
OVERALL 818 32.9 24.5 18.4 3.8 10.6 2.4 5.6 1.4 0.5 100.0
AGE GROUP
under 30 188 27.2 21.3 32.6 1.7 10.1 0.9 6.2 0.0 0.0 100.0
30s 195 33.7 27.2 17.0 1.8 9.6 0.8 7.2 0.7 2.0 100.0
40s 177 36.8 29.0 10.4 4.1 10.8 2.8 5.0 1.1 0.0 100.0
50sand older 257 33.8 21.7 14.6 6.6 11.7 4.4 4.2 3.0 0.0 100.0
IDEOLOGY
Progressive 338 30.3 24.6 19.1 4.0 14.4 1.4 5.6 0.6 0.0 100.0
Center 195 34.4 25.9 19.7 4.9 8.1 3.1 2.0 0.0 2.0 100.0
Conservative 267 35.4 23.5 17.8 3.0 7.7 2.5 7.8 2.4 0.0 100.0
Don’t Know
/No response
18 28.5 21.6 0.0 0.0 10.7 13.0 10.7 15.5 0.0 100.0

 

Q1-2. Which party do you believe is most capable of promoting economic growth?

Uri Party GNP MDP Democratic Labor None Don’t Know/No response Total
(%) 15.7 57.3 1.4 4.6 13.3 7.7 100.0

 

Q1-3. Which party do you believe is most capable of narrowing the gap between the wealthy and the poor?

Uri Party GNP MDP Democratic Labor People FirstParty Other None Don’t Know/No response Total
(%) 25.0 22.1 1.3 26.5 0.2 0.4 14.3 10.3 100.0

 

Q1-4. Which party do you believe is most capable of providing more employment opportunities and increased job security?

Uri Party GNP MDP Democratic Labor People First Party Other None Don’t Know/No response Total
(%) 23.2 32.0 2.3 16.5 0.6 0.6 17.1 7.8 100.0

 

Q1-5. Which party do you believe is most capable of relieving ideological tension and polarization?

Uri Party GNP Democratic Labor None Total
(%) 33.6 35.1 8.9 22.5 100.0

 

Q1-6. Which party do you believe is most capable of initiating political reform?

Uri Party GNP MDP Democratic Labor People First Party Other None Don’t Know/No response Total
(%) 27.0 28.3 0.5 13.8 1.9 1.0 16.3 11.2 100.0

 

Q1-7. Which party do you believe is most capable of managing the North Korean nuclear problem?

Uri Party GNP Don’t Know/No response Total
(%) 46.9 23.9 29.1 100.0

 

Q1-8. Which party do you believe is most capable of balancing local developments?

Uri Party GNP MDP Democratic Labor None Don’t Know/No response Total
(%) 38.9 12.0 4.3 10.0 26.9 7.9 100.0

 

Seoul: 2nd Local Survey Research (MoE: ± 3.8%)

Q2-1. What do you think the focus of the Korean National Agenda should be?

Economic growth Narrowing
the gap between
the rich and the poor
Employment& job security Mitigating
ideological
polarization
Political
reform
Resolving North Korean
nuclear crisis
Balanced developments between Seoul and local provinces Other Don’t know/No response Total
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)
OVERALL 670 38.5 25.9 15.5 3.6 7.5 0.7 7.6 0.6 0.1 100.0
AGE GROUP
under 30 163 31.0 23.5 25.1 2.5 4.5 0.5 12.3 0.0 0.5 100.0
30s 163 38.8 28.5 12.5 1.0 7.3 1.1 9.6 1.2 0.0 100.0
40s 145 41.6 29.0 10.3 2.5 10.2 1.0 4.8 0.5 0.0 100.0
50sand older 199 42.1 23.3 13.9 7.4 8.2 0.4 4.3 0.5 0.0 100.0
IDEOLOGY
Progressive 289 35.9 24.8 17.3 2.3 10.1 1.2 7.9 0.3 0.0 100.0
Center 149 34.7 28.8 14.4 4.3 7.6 0.0 9.6 0.0 0.6 100.0
Conservative 223 42.9 25.9 14.5 4.8 4.4 0.6 5.7 1.2 0.0 100.0
Don’t Know/No response 8 77.3 8.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 14.4 0.0 0.0 100.0

 

Q2-1. Which party do you believe is most capable of promoting economic growth?

Uri Party GNP MDP Democratic Labor People First Party None Don’t Know/No response Total
(%) 11.1 64.3 0.5 3.4 0.4 12.4 8.0 100.0

 

Q2-2. Which party do you believe is most capable of narrowing the gap between the wealthy and the poor?

Uri Party GNP Democratic Labor People First Party Other None Don’t Know/No response Total
(%) 28.4 21.3 23.8 109.0 0.4 17.4 6.7 100.0

 

Q2-3. Which party do you believe is most capable of providing more employment opportunities and increased job security?

Uri Party GNP MDP Democratic Labor None Don’t Know/No response Total
(%) 23.3 35.6 1.2 21.2 13.4 5.3 100.0

 

Q2-4. Which party do you believe is most capable of relieving ideological tension and polarization?

Uri Party GNP Democratic Labor None Don’t Know/No Response Total
(%) 22.0 49.7 3.6 20.7 4.0 100.0

 

Q2-5. Which party do you believe is most capable of initiating political reform?

Uri Party GNP Democratic Labor Other None Don’t Know/No response Total
(%) 19.7 29.6 19.5 1.7 21.1 8.4 100.0

 

Q2-6. Which party do you believe is most capable of managing the North Korean nuclear problem?

Uri Party GNP None Don’t Know/No response Total
(%) 54.7 18.7 14.4 12.2 100.0

 

Q2-7. Which party do you believe is most capable of balancing local developments?

Uri Party GNP Democratic Labor None Don’t Know/No response Total
(%) 42.0 23.1 6.6 19.2 9.1 100.0

 

Busan: 1st Local Survey Research (MoE: ±3.5%)

Q1-1. What do you think the focus of the Korean National Agenda should be?

Economic
growth
Narrowing
the gap between the rich and the poor
Employment
& job
security
Mitigating
ideological polarization
Political
reform
Resolving
North Korean nuclear crisis
Balanced developments
between Seoul
and local provinces
Other Don’t know/No response Total
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)
OVERALL 773 30.3 19.3 22.8 2.3 11.2 2.3 9.2 1.6 1.1 100.0
AGE GROUP
under 30 178 23.2 18.1 33.7 0.6 9.2 0.0 14.1 0.0 1.1 100.0
30s 160 28.6 28.9 14.8 0.2 11.2 1.9 13.5 1.1 0.0 100.0
40s 177 27.1 17.6 20.6 4.5 17.2 1.5 7.7 1.9 1.8 100.0
50sand older 258 38.4 15.5 21.6 3.1 8.5 4.5 4.2 3.0 1.1 100.0
IDEOLOGY
Progressive 302 27.5 18.6 21.7 3.6 13.4 2.6 10.9 0.6 1.0 100.0
Center 193 31.7 21.8 23.2 0.8 9.2 3.3 9.7 0.3 0.0 100.0
Conservative 264 32.6 18.9 22.5 1.8 10.8 0.5 7.4 3.9 1.7 100.0
Don’t Know/No response 14 26.1 9.6 44.2 1.2 0.0 12.8 0.0 0.0 6.1 100.0

 

Q1-2. Which party do you believe is most capable of promoting economic growth?

Uri Party GNP MDP Democratic Labor Other None Don’t Know/No response Total
(%) 19.0 50.5 0.2 1.9 0.2 14.5 13.7 100.0

 

Q1-3. Which party do you believe is most capable of narrowing the gap between the wealthy and the poor?

Uri Party GNP MDP Democratic Labor Other None Don’t Know/No response Total
(%) 19.8 27.9 0.6 32.8 1.9 9.9 7.2 100.0

 

Q1-4. Which party do you believe is most capable of providing more employment opportunities and increased job security?

Uri Party GNP MDP Democratic Labor People FirstParty Other None Don’t Know/No response Total
(%) 14.7 32.1 3.6 19.9 0.7 0.5 14.6 14.1 100.0

 

Q1.5. Which party do you believe is most capable of relieving ideological tension and polarization?

Uri Party GNP MDP Democratic Labor None Don’t Know/No Response Total
(%) 36.9 31.8 1.7 9.5 19.2 0.9 100.0

 

Q1-6. Which party do you believe is most capable of initiating political reform?

Uri Party GNP MDP Democratic Labor Other None Don’t Know/No response Total
(%) 23.4 38.1 2.0 6.5 1.6 21.8 6.6 100.0

 

Q1-7. Which party do you believe is most capable of managing the North Korean nuclear problem?

Uri Party GNP Don’t Know/No response Total
(%) 22.8 62.1 15.1 100.0

 

Q1-8. Which party do you believe is most capable of balancing local developments?

Uri Party GNP Democratic Labor PeopleFirst Party None Don’t Know/No response Total
(%) 24.7 29.8 18.7 5.4 19.0 2.4 100.0

 

Busan: 2nd Local Survey Research (MoE: ±3.8%)

Q2-1. What do you think the focus of the Korean National Agenda should be?

Economic
growth
Narrowing the gap between the rich and the poor Employment&
job security
Mitigating
ideological
polarization
Political
reform
Resolving
North Korean nuclear crisis
Balanced developments
between Seoul
and local provinces
Other Don’t know/No response Total
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)
OVERALL 667 32.0 24.6 20.5 2.2 7.4 3.5 9.2 0.5 0.2 100.0
AGE GROUP
under 30 154 25.8 20.8 32.9 0.5 5.1 2.2 12.0 0.0 0.7 100.0
30s 138 26.8 31.8 19.0 1.6 4.4 2.7 13.8 0.0 0.0 100.0
40s 153 30.6 27.0 17.5 3.9 9.6 0.2 10.2 0.9 0.0 100.0
50sand older 222 40.4 21.1 15.0 2.5 9.3 7.2 3.6 0.9 0.0 100.0
IDEOLOGY
Progressive 270 30.6 21.6 16.9 3.5 8.2 4.4 13.3 1.3 0.4 100.0
Center 163 31.2 19.1 30.5 1.1 6.1 4.0 8.0 0.0 0.0 100.0
Conservative 227 33.1 32.2 18.3 1.5 7.6 1.9 5.4 0.0 0.0 100.0
Don’t Know/No response 7 67.9 22.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 10.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0

 

Q2-2. Which party do you believe is most capable of promoting economic growth?

Uri Party GNP MDP Democratic
Labor
People First Party Other None Don’t Know/No response Total
(%) 19.7 59.0 0.4 1.2 0.4 0.3 13.3 5.6 100.0

 

Q2-3. Which party do you believe is most capable of narrowing the gap between the wealthy and the poor?

Uri Party GNP MDP Democratic Labor None Don’t Know/No response Total
(%) 18.0 35.7 3.2 26.0 10.3 6.9 100.0

 

Q2-4. Which party do you believe is most capable of providing more employment opportunities and increased job security?

Uri Party GNP MDP Democratic
Labor
None Don’t Know/No response Total
(%) 16.2 37.9 2.3 30.0 10.4 3.2 100.0

 

Q2-5. Which party do you believe is most capable of easing ideological tension and polarization?

Uri Party GNP MDP Democratic
Labor
People First party None Total
(%) 45.3 23.5 6.5 21.5 0.6 2.6 100.0

 

Q2-6. Which party do you believe is most capable of initiating political reform?

Uri Party GNP MDP Democratic
Labor
None Don’t Know/No response Total
(%) 14.5 50.0 3.2 9.0 17.6 5.8 100.0

 

Q2-7. Which party do you believe is most capable of managing the North Korean nuclear problem?

Uri Party GNP MDP Don’t Know/No response Total
(%) 34.5 27.8 15.7 22.0 100.0

 

Q2-8. Which party do you believe is most capable of balancing local developments?

Uri Party GNP MDP Democratic
Labor
People First Party Other None Don’t Know/No response Total
(%) 36.4 22.1 1.9 24.1 4.2 0.9 8.2 2.2 100.0

 

The First National Panel Survey Research: Shift of Loyalty

Questions unavailable, but the survey results and explanations are on the website.

N= 1299 respondents

Of those who voted for Roh Moo-hyun in the 2002 presidential election (n=649), only 252 (38.8%) remained loyal to President Roh. In contrast, 80.3% of those who voted for the opposition candidate Lee Hui-chang said they would support a GNP candidate in next election.

Q3-1. Of those who supported President Roh and who supported GNP leader Lee in 2002, the approval rating of each political party for the next presidential election in 2007 (%)

Uri party GNP MDP Democratic Labor People First Party Party does not matter Don’t know/no response Total
President Roh 38.8 26.8 10.2 7.1 1.4 9.9 5.9 100.0
Opposition Leader Lee 7.3 80.3 0.5 2.4 0.2 5.7 3.6 100.0

 

Q3-2. Analyzing loyalty shift (broken down by age groups)

Under 30 30’s 40’s 50 and older
Withdrew support for the ruling party 33.6 49.5 52.5 40.6
Keep supporting the ruling party 59.5 37 35.4 33.3
Independent/No response 6.9 13.5 12 26.1
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

 

Q3-3. Analyzing loyalty shift (broken down by ideological inclinations)

Progressives Center Conservatives Don’t know/ No response
Withdrew support for the ruling party 39.4 52.5 47.9 38.5
Keep supporting the ruling party 43.8 35.4 34.9 53.8
Independent/No response 16.8 12 17.2 7.7
Total 100 100 100 100

 

The Second National Survey Research: Analysis of the Local Election Results

The total vote
Uri Party (ruling): 23.2%
Grand National Party (main opposition): 51.7%

Q4-1. Please indicate your opinion on the causes of the recent landslide victory of the GNP and unprecedented defeat of the ruling Uri party.

Good performance of GNP Bad performance of Uri party Bad performanceof President Roh and his administration Personal preferences for individual GNP candidates Don’t know/No response Total
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)
OVERALL 1001 3.0 29.2 58.6 4.4 4.9 100.0
AGE GROUP
under 30 223 2.7 31.5 57.6 6.6 1.6 100.0
30s 239 2.6 29.7 59.4 5.2 3.1 100.0
40s 226 2.2 27.3 58.7 1.8 10.0 100.0
50s and older 313 4.2 28.5 58.5 4.0 4.9 100.0
IDEOLOGY
Progressive 389 2.0 31.6 52.7 5.7 8.0 100.0
Center 237 3.8 28.8 57.4 6.1 3.8 100.0
Conservative 353 3.1 27.1 65.3 2.0 2.4 100.0
Don’t Know/No response 22 10.4 23.5 66.0 0.0 0.0 100.0

 

The Fourth Local Survey Research: Analysis of the Local Election Results

Seoul: The Fourth Local Survey Research (MoE: ±3.9%)

Q5-1. How satisfied are you with the overall outcome of the most recent local elections?

Very Satisfied Generally satisfied Not very satisfied Not at all satisfied
/disappointed
Don’t know/No response Total
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)
OVERALL 626 17.8 38.3 29.9 11.8 2.2 100.0
AGE GROUP
under 30 152 13.0 41.0 33.6 11.3 1.1 100.0
30s 153 5.9 44.0 33.5 15.6 0.9 100.0
40s 136 19.7 31.9 36.2 11.6 0.5 100.0
50s and older 185 30.1 36.0 19.4 9.2 5.3 100.0
IDEOLOGY
Progressive 275 14.7 33.0 35.5 15.4 1.4 100.0
Center 146 9.0 45.8 30.7 9.3 5.2 100.0
Conservative 195 29.6 39.2 21.3 8.8 1.1 100.0
Don’t Know/No response 10 0.0 56.8 33.8 9.4 0.0 100.0

 

Q5-2. Please indicate your opinion on the causes of the recent landslide victory of the GNP and unprecedented defeat of the ruling Uri party.

Good performance of GNP Bad performance of Uri party Bad performance of President Roh and his administration Personal preferences for individual GNP candidates Don’t know/No response Total
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)
OVERALL 626 1.7 31.2 59.6 3.4 4.1 100.0
AGE GROUP
under 30 152 2.3 37.8 48.8 5.1 5.9 100.0
30s 153 1.8 33.1 61.9 0.7 2.5 100.0
40s 136 1.5 33.0 61.5 3.5 0.5 100.0
50s and older 185 1.3 22.8 65.3 4.2 6.4 100.0
IDEOLOGY
Progressive 275 1.6 35.0 55.4 4.5 3.5 100.0
Center 146 3.8 33.5 54.1 1.5 7.1 100.0
Conservative 195 0.5 23.3 71.1 3.4 1.7 100.0
Don’t Know/No response 10 0.0 45.1 33.2 0.0 21.7 100.0

 

Q5-3. Please evaluate President Roh Moo-hyun’s job performance.

Doing a very good job Doing reasonably well Doing a poor job Doing a very poor job Don’t know/No response Total
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)
OVERALL 626 0.7 21.1 48.1 29.5 0.7 100.0
AGE GROUP
under 30 152 0.6 24.2 56.9 18.3 0.0 100.0
30s 153 0.9 21.9 55.8 21.4 0.0 100.0
40s 136 0.0 22.8 42.1 35.1 0.0 100.0
50s and older 185 1.3 16.5 38.8 41.2 2.2 100.0
IDEOLOGY
Progressive 275 0.4 27.7 49.0 22.9 0.0 100.0
Center 146 0.4 20.5 50.7 26.4 2.0 100.0
Conservative 195 0.4 13.2 46.6 39.2 0.6 100.0
Don’t Know/No response 10 21.7 0.0 9.4 68.9 0.0 100.0

 

Busan: The Fourth Local Survey Research (MoE: ± 4.0%)

Q5-1. How satisfied are you with the overall outcome of the most recent local elections?

Very Satisfied Generally satisfied Not very satisfied Not at all satisfied/disappointed Don’t know/No response Total
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)
OVERALL 614 17.7 47.0 25.1 8.8 1.4 100.0
AGE GROUP
under 30 142 10.3 49.2 27.5 12.2 0.9 100.0
30s 127 9.3 43.9 34.3 8.5 4.1 100.0
40s 141 14.5 46.1 23.3 14.8 1.3 100.0
50s and older 205 30.3 48.1 18.9 2.7 0.0 100.0
IDEOLOGY
Progressive 245 11.2 43.7 27.2 15.1 2.9 100.0
Center 151 19.0 51.7 26.3 3.0 0.0 100.0
Conservative 213 23.2 48.2 22.3 5.7 0.6 100.0
Don’t Know/No response 5 63.4 18.5 5.5 12.6 0.0 100.0

 

Q5-2. Please indicate your opinion on the causes of the recent landslide victory of the GNP and unprecedented defeat of the ruling Uri party.

Good performance of GNP Bad performance of Uri party Bad performance of President Roh and his administration Personal preferences for individual GNP candidates Don’t know/No response Total
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)
OVERALL 614 6.9 29.7 56.0 4.1 3.3 100.0
AGE GROUP
under 30 142 4.6 31.4 50.5 6.9 6.5 100.0
30s 127 6.5 33.9 53.4 2.9 3.3 100.0
40s 141 4.8 25.3 65.2 2.6 2.1 100.0
50s and older 205 10.1 28.8 55.2 4.0 1.9 100.0
IDEOLOGY
Progressive 245 6.8 26.3 60.2 3.2 3.5 100.0
Center 151 7.7 31.3 52.8 7.0 1.2 100.0
Conservative 213 6.2 32.7 54.5 1.9 4.7 100.0
Don’t Know/No response 5 16.7 14.3 18.9 50.0 0.0 100.0

 

Q5-3. Please evaluate President Roh Moo-hyun’s job performance.

Doing a very good job Doing a reasonably
good job
Doing a poor job Doing a very poor job Don’t know/No response Total
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)
OVERALL 614 0.5 26.8 50.8 21.5 0.5 100.0
AGE GROUP
under 30 142 0.0 34.7 47.0 17.4 0.9 100.0
30s 127 0.0 30.6 54.9 14.5 0.0 100.0
40s 141 0.5 25.5 48.3 25.7 0.0 100.0
50s and older 205 1.1 19.7 52.5 25.9 0.8 100.0
IDEOLOGY
Progressive 245 1.2 33.7 49.1 16.0 0.0 100.0
Center 151 0.0 29.8 44.1 26.1 0.0 100.0
Conservative 213 0.0 16.6 57.3 24.7 1.4 100.0
Don’t Know/No response 5 0.0 29.3 51.8 18.9 0.0 100.0

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