East China Sea Tensions


In November 2013 China imposed an Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ) over the East China Sea. Tensions in the region already were elevated over bitter historical quarrels and disputed territories, most notably the Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands. China’s move to impose an ADIZ prompted concerns not only from neighboring South Korea and Japan, but also from the United States. In an effort to further constructive dialogue on these issues, in mid-February 2014 the Mansfield Foundation initiated a multi-part program on maritime and territorial disputes in East Asian waters.  The program included private and public meetings in Washington and Tokyo. In each city leading experts from the United States and Asia met to discuss issues related to these disputes in private and public forums.  The private sessions allowed participants to examine the issues and explore solutions in frank, non-political, and off-the-record settings.  The private meetings were followed by public events that provided opportunities to engage on the issues with representatives of the think tank, media, government, business and academic communities in Washington, D.C., and Tokyo. Several of the participants and other experts were asked to author brief essays addressing issues related to the maritime and territorial disputes.  The essays were revised to reflect the private and public sessions in Washington, and were compiled in a compendium, “East China Sea Tensions, Perspectives and Implications,” published in March 2014.

View PDF of Compendium »


February 12, 2014 Washington Symposium

On February 12, 2014, the Foundation hosted the first “Symposium on East China Sea Tensions,” which brought experts from both sides of the Pacific to Washington to discuss ongoing maritime and territorial disputes in East Asian waters and their wider implications. After welcoming remarks from Interim Executive Director David Boling, the first panel on “Perspectives on East China Seas” featured James Feinerman (Georgetown University Law School) as moderator and panelists Andrew Erickson (John King Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies, Harvard University), Ely Ratner (Center for a New American Security), Kuen-Chen Fu (Shanghai Jiaotong University and Xiamen University) and Satoru Mori (Hosei University). During lunch, Gordon Chang (Forbes.com) provided a spirited address on “Asia’s 1937 Syndrome.” Donald Clarke (George Washington University Law School) moderated a second panel on the “Wider Implications of Asian Maritime Tensions” featuring Wallace “Chip” Gregson (U.S. Marine Corps (ret), and Banyan Analytics, an ANSER Institute), Tsuneo Watanabe (The Tokyo Foundation), Jun Osawa (Institute for International Policy Studies) and Gordon Chang. The substantive discussion was augmented by insightful questions and occasionally impassioned remarks by audience members.


The program ended with a keynote address by Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Strategy and Multilateral Affairs Michael Fuchs (Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs, Department of State). To manage these disputes peacefully, Mr. Fuchs emphasized the importance of grounding territorial claims in international law and continued high-level diplomatic talks. A full agenda from the Washington symposium is available here, and bios of the panelists are available below. The previous day, the panelists met in a closed-door session to discuss these issues in an “off the record” setting.


March 25, 2014 Tokyo Symposium

In late March, several of the panelists travelled to Tokyo along with Mansfield Foundation staff to continue their dialogue with senior members of the Japanese government and U.S. officials and to participate in a second symposium.   More information about that symposium will be available shortly.



Masahiro Akiyama
President, The Tokyo Foundation

Masahiro Akiyama graduated from the Faculty of Law of the University of Tokyo in 1964 and entered the Ministry of Finance. Professional career in government includes a number of key and senior positions, such as counselor in the Embassy of Japan in Canada, budget examiner in MOF’s Budget Bureau, head of the Banking Investigation Division in MOF’s Banking Bureau, chief of the Nara Prefectural Police Headquarters, and director general of Tokyo Customs.

Mr. Akiyama moved to the Defense Agency in 1991, serving as director general of the Defense Policy Bureau and administrative vice-minister of defense before resigning from the agency in November 1998. He was visiting scholar at the John F. Kennedy School of Government of Harvard University and the Asian Center in 1999, and was chairman of the Ocean Policy Research Foundation from 2001 to June 2012. He has also been specially appointed professor at the Graduate School of Social Design Studies for the 21st Century, Rikkyo University, and, since 2008, visiting professor at the Center for International and Strategic Studies, Peking University. He assumed his current position in June 2012.

David_BolingDavid Alan Boling
Deputy Executive Director, The Maureen and Mike Mansfield Foundation

David Boling is Deputy Executive Director of the Mansfield Foundation.  Mr. Boling serves as Director of the Mike Mansfield Fellowship Program, a congressionally-mandated professional exchange for mid-level U.S. government employees.   He also manages the U.S.-Japan Network for the Future, a program launched in 2009 to foster a new generation of Japan specialists.  In addition to supervising these and other programs, Mr. Boling provides counsel and strategic advice to the Executive Director regarding the Foundation’s administration, direction and mission.

Mr. Boling participated in the Mike Mansfield Fellowship Program from 1999-2001 as a representative of the U.S. Department of Justice, where he served as a trial attorney in the Antitrust Division.  While at the Justice Department, he also served for one year as Antitrust Counsel to the Chairman of the Antitrust Subcommittee of the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee.  From 2007-2010 he was Chief of Staff to U.S. Congressman Vic Snyder from Arkansas and in 2010 ran in the Democratic Party primary election to represent Arkansas’ Second Congressional District.

Mr. Boling earned his B.A. and J.D. from the University of Arkansas and a Master of Laws (LL.M) from Columbia University.   He began his career as an assistant English teacher in the Japan Exchange Teaching (JET) Program.  He has written numerous articles on Japanese antimonopolybio phopt law and legal and regulatory developments in Japan.

Gordon_ChangGordon G. Chang
Author and ColumnistForbes.com

Gordon G. Chang is the author of Nuclear Showdown: North Korea Takes On the World, released by Random House in January 2006. Showdown focuses on nuclear proliferation in general and the North Korean crisis in particular.  His first book is The Coming Collapse of China (Random House, August 2001). He is a columnist at Forbes.com and blogs at World Affairs Journal.

He lived and worked in China and Hong Kong for almost two decades, most recently in Shanghai, as Counsel to the American law firm Paul Weiss and earlier in Hong Kong as Partner in the international law firm Baker & McKenzie.

His writings on China and North Korea have appeared in The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, the Far Eastern Economic Review, the International Herald Tribune, Commentary, The Weekly Standard, National Review, and Barron’s.

He has spoken at Columbia, Cornell, Harvard, Penn, Princeton, Yale, and other universities and at The Brookings Institution, The Heritage Foundation, the Cato Institute, RAND, the American Enterprise Institute, the Council on Foreign Relations, and other institutions.  He has given briefings at the National Intelligence Council, the Central Intelligence Agency, the State Department, and the Pentagon.  He has also spoken before industry and investor groups including Bloomberg, Sanford Bernstein, Royal Bank of Scotland, and Credit Lyonnais Securities Asia.  Mr. Chang has appeared before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs and the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission.

He has appeared on CNN, Fox News Channel, Fox Business Network, CNBC, MSNBC, PBS, the BBC, and Bloomberg Television. He has appeared on The Daily Show with Jon Stewart and is a frequent co-host and guest on The John Batchelor Show. Outside the United States he has spoken in Beijing, Shanghai, Taipei, Hong Kong, Seoul, Singapore, Tokyo, The Hague, London, Ottawa, Toronto, and Vancouver. He has served two terms as a trustee of Cornell University.

Andrew_EricksonAndrew S. Erickson
Associate in Research, Harvard University’s John King Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies

Dr. Andrew S. Erickson is an Associate Professor in the Strategic Research Department at the U.S. Naval War College and a core founding member of the department’s China Maritime Studies Institute (CMSI). He is an Associate in Research at Harvard University’s John King Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies (2008~). He also serves as an expert contributor to the Wall Street Journal’s China Real Time Report (中国实时报), for which he has authored or coauthored 26 articles. In spring 2013, he deployed in the Pacific as a Regional Security Education Program scholar aboard USS Nimitz (CVN68), Carrier Strike Group 11.

Dr. Erickson is a term member of the Council on Foreign Relations, and serves on the advisory committee for a forthcoming CFR Special Report examining how the United States can limit the proliferation of armed drones. In 2012, the National Bureau of Asian Research awarded him the inaugural Ellis Joffe Prize for PLA Studies. During academic year 2010-11, he was a Fellow in the Princeton-Harvard China and the World Program in residence at Harvard’s Center for Government and International Studies. From 2008-11, he was a Fellow in the National Committee on U.S.-China Relations’ Public Intellectuals Program, and served as a scholar escort on a five-Member Congressional trip to Beijing, Qingdao, Chengdu, and Shanghai.

In addition to advising a wide range of student research, Mr. Erickson has taught courses at the Naval War College and Yonsei University, and has lectured extensively at government, academic, and private sector institutions throughout the United States and Asia. He has briefed the U.S. Chief of Naval Operations and his Executive Panel, as well as the Secretary of the Navy, other Executive Branch officials, and multiple Members of Congress; and testified before the House Armed Services Committee (Seapower and Projection Forces Subcommittee) and the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission. He has provided inputs for, and reviews of, various government reports. He previously worked for Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) as a Chinese translator and technical analyst. He has also worked at the U.S. Embassy in Beijing, the U.S. Consulate in Hong Kong, the U.S. Senate, and the White House. Proficient in Mandarin Chinese and Japanese, he has traveled extensively in Asia and has lived in China, Japan, and Korea.

Kuenchen_FuKuenchen Fu
ZhiYuan Chair Professor of Law, Shanghai Jiao Tong University 

Kuenchen Fu is ZhiYuan Chair Professor of Law at Shanghai Jiao Tong University Law School, Director-General of the South China Sea Institute of Xiamen University, Academic Advisor for China Review in Hong Kong, and Editor-in-Chief of the China Oceans Law Review. He received his B.L. and LL.M. from National Taiwan University School of Law, and received his S.J.D. from University of Virginia in the United States in 1986. He has been a researcher at The Hague Academy of International Law, and a visiting scholar at University of Washington School of Law (Seattle, United States) and City University Law School (Hong Kong).

Prof. Fu specializes in international law, law of the sea, international arbitration law, and Anglo-American contract law. He has also taught courses in private international law, constitutional law, administrative law, international business law, introduction to Anglo-American law, etc. He is an arbitrator for CMAC, CIETAC, Shanghai, Xiamen, Quanzhou, Wuhan and Russian far eastern Region. In Taiwan, he has served as a National Assemblyman, Legislator, Advisor to the Executive Yuan, Advisor to the Legislative Yuan, and a Director of the Overseas Fisheries Development Council. He has published 30 books in Chinese and English, including International Law of the Sea – A Theory of Equitable Boundary Delimitation, Research on the Legal Status of the South (China) Sea, Special Studies in Law of the Sea, A View of Both Sides of the Strait from Xiamen and Taipei, Equitable Ocean Boundary Delimitation, Vessel-source Pollution and Coastal State Jurisdiction, Recent Developments in the Law of the Sea and China, Protection of Under-Water Cultural Heritage under International Law, and The Essence of American Contract Law.

Wallace_GregsonLieutenant General Wallace C. Gregson, Jr. USMC (Ret.)
Senior DirectorCenter for the National Interest
Banyan Analytics, an ANSER Institute
Avascent International

Lieutenant General Wallace C. Gregson, Jr., is Senior Director, China and the Pacific at the Center for the National Interest.  He retired from the Marine Corps in 2005 with the rank of Lieutenant General. He last served as the Commander, U.S. Marine Corps Forces Pacific; Commanding General, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific; and Commander, U.S. Marine Corps Bases, Pacific, headquartered at Camp H. M. Smith, Hawaii.

General Gregson is a 1968 graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy. After The Basic School, he served with the 1st Reconnaissance Battalion, 1st Marine Division in the Republic of Vietnam from February 1969 to August 1970. Operational assignments included infantry battalion executive officer, division staff duty, headquarters battalion executive officer, operations officer (G-3) of I Marine Expeditionary Force, and assistant operations officer (J-3A) of Unified Task Force Somalia during Operation Restore Hope. He has commanded an infantry company; Headquarters Battalion, 1st Marine Division; 1st Battalion, 5th Marines; 7th Marine Regiment; and 3d Marine Division. From 2001 to 2005 he served as Commanding General, III Marine Expeditionary Force, and Commander, Marine Corps Bases, Japan and Commander, Marine Forces, Japan.

Following retirement, he joined the U.S. Olympic Committee as Chief Operating Officer.  In 2006 he formed his own consulting company.  On 13 May 2009, following Senate confirmation, he assumed responsibility as Assistant Secretary of Defense for Asian and Pacific Security Affairs, a post he held until 2 April 2011.  He is now in business as President of WC Gregson & Associates, and a Senior Fellow with Avascent International, and CNA Analysis and Solutions.

He is a member of the Marine Corps Association, the U.S. Naval Institute and the Council on Foreign Relations.  He is a past Trustee of the Marine Corps University Foundation, and af ormer Director of the Injured Marine Semper Fi Fund.  He is an Honorary Adviser to the Okinawa Development International Council. He and his wife Cindy reside in Falls Church, VA.

Michael_McDevittMichael McDevitt, Rear Admiral, USN (Ret.)
Senior FellowCenter for Naval Analyses (CNA)

Michael McDevitt is a senior fellow with CNA Strategic Studies. Over his 15 years at CNA, as both a vice president and now as a fellow, he has had a number of papers dealing with security issues in Asia published. His most recent research focus has been the maritime security issues along the Indo-Pacific littoral and the maritime dimension of China’s national strategy.

In addition, he continues to lead a project that conducts Track II dialogues with the leading maritime oriented research centers in Asia. He has also been an active participant and panelist in conferences and workshops regarding security issues related to maritime security and U.S. security policy and has had a number of papers published in edited volumes on these subjects. He has particular expertise in East Asia affairs, with his most recent research efforts focusing on the maritime dimension of China’s national strategy.

McDevitt has been at CNA since leaving active duty in 1997. During his Navy career, McDevitt held four at-sea commands, including command of an aircraft carrier battle group. He was a Chief of Naval Operations Strategic Studies Group fellow at the Naval War College and was director of the East Asia Policy Office for the Secretary of Defense during the George H.W. Bush Administration. He also served for two years as the director for Strategy, War Plans and Policy (J-5) for U.S. CINCPAC. McDevitt concluded his 34-year active-duty career as the Commandant of the National War College in Washington, D.C.

He is a graduate of the University of Southern California and has a Master’s Degree in U.S. Diplomatic History in East Asia for Georgetown University. McDevitt spent a year in residence at the U.S. Naval War College as a member of the CNO’s Strategic Studies Group. He is also a graduate of the National War College.

Satoru_MoriSatoru Mori
Professor at the Department of Global Politics, Faculty of Law, Hosei University
Visiting Scholar at the Sigur Center for Asian Studies,Elliott School of International Affairs, George Washington University

Satoru Mori is currently Professor at the Department of Global Politics, Faculty of Law, Hosei University. Professor Mori’s fields of interest are U.S. foreign policy and international politics. He received his LLB from Kyoto University, and his LLM from Kyoto University as well as Columbia Law School. He received his Ph.D. from the Graduate Schools for Law and Politics at the University of Tokyo in 2007. His Ph.D. dissertation was published from the University of Tokyo Press in August 2009 titled The Vietnam War and Alliance Diplomacy: the Impact of British and French Peace Initiatives on U.S. Policy, 1964-1968 (Awarded the Hiroshi Shimizu Prize by the Japanese Association for American Studies and the Sakuradakai Political Studies Prize from the Sakuradakai Foundation).

Prior to his current position, Dr. Mori served in the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1996-2001) and was a research fellow at the International Center for Comparative Law and Politics at the University of Tokyo. He received a security studies fellowship from the Research Institute for Peace and Security (RIPS), 2002-2004.

Jun_OsawaJun Osawa
Senior Research Fellow, Institute for International Policy Studies

Jun Osawa is a Senior Research Fellow at the Institute for International Policy Studies (IIPS) in Tokyo since 2009. Mr. Osawa is co-director of the Trilateral Dialogue in Northeast Asia (TDNA) and the Trilateral Dialogue between Japan-US-China, and coordinator for the Tokyo-Seoul Forum, which is a strategic dialogue between South Korea and Japan. He also serves as a visiting scholar at National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, and a dissertation advisor for the Advanced Course of MSDF Staff College since 2008.

Mr. Osawa joined IIPS in 1995 as a Research Fellow. His previous positions include: Policy Planning Researcher and Advisor, Policy Planning Division, Foreign Policy Bureau, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2007-2009); Analyst for proliferation of WMD and missile issue, Second Division, Intelligence and Analysis Service, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2004-2006); and Lecturer, International Studies at Meiji Gakuin University (2003). Mr. Osawa received his M.A. from Keio University in 1996 and his B.A. from Keio University in 1994

Richard Pearson
Associate Director of Programs and Development,
The Maureen and Mike Mansfield Foundation

Richard Pearson serves as Associate Director of Programs and Development at the Maureen and Mike Mansfield Foundation. He is responsible for the development and implementation of the Foundation’s China programs, including exchanges, conferences and policy dialogues, as well as other Asia-focused programming. Mr. Pearson also contributes to the Foundation’s Capitol Hill Asia Policy Dialogues and is responsible for Foundation development efforts in the U.S. and Asia.

Mr. Pearson joined the Mansfield Foundation in 2010 with extensive experience in U.S.-Asia relations gained through prior work in the public, private, media and NGO sectors.

Prior to joining the Mansfield Foundation, Pearson served from 2004 to 2006 as an analyst for East and Southeast Asia at the Central Intelligence Agency. Before joining the CIA, Pearson worked at the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and as a business reporter at The China Post in Taipei, Taiwan. Pearson has authored numerous reports, articles and opinion pieces on U.S.-Asia relations, international relations of East and Southeast Asia, and economic and trade matters.

Pearson received a master of arts in law and diplomacy degree from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy and a bachelor’s degree from St. Olaf College. He studied in Taiwan from 2000 to 2001 on a Fulbright grant.


Ely Ratner
Director and Senior Fellow
Center for a New American Security

Dr. Ely Ratner is Senior Fellow and Deputy Director of the Asia-Pacific Security Program at the Center for a New American Security (CNAS). Prior to joining CNAS he served on the China Desk at the State Department as the lead political officer covering China’s external relations in Asia. He has also worked as an Associate Political Scientist at the RAND Corporation and as a Professional Staff Member on the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee.

His commentary and research have appeared in Foreign Affairs, Foreign Policy, The Washington Post, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Quarterly, The National Interest, Journal of Conflict Resolution, International Studies Quarterly and Chinese Journal of International Politics, among others. He received his Ph.D. in Political Science at the University of California, Berkeley and his B.A. from the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University, where he graduated Magna Cum Laude and Phi Beta Kappa.

 Alan_RombergAlan D. Romberg
Director of East Asia Program, Stimson Center

Alan D. Romberg is distinguished fellow and the director of the East Asia program at Stimson. Before joining Stimson in September 2000, he enjoyed a distinguished career working on Asian issues, both in and out of government, including 27 years in the State Department, with over 20 years as a U.S. Foreign Service Officer. Romberg was the principal deputy director of the State Department’s Policy Planning staff, principal deputy assistant secretary of state for public affairs and deputy spokesman of the department. He served in various capacities dealing with East Asia, including director of the Office of Japanese Affairs, member of the Policy Planning staff for East Asia, and staff member at the National Security Council for China. He served overseas in Hong Kong and Taiwan.

Additionally, Romberg spent almost 10 years as the CV Starr Senior Fellow for Asian Studies at the Council on Foreign Relations, and was special assistant to the secretary of the navy. He has written extensively on U.S. policy in East Asia, focusing in particular on U.S. relations with the People’s Republic of China, Taiwan, Korea and Japan. Romberg holds an M.A. from Harvard University, and a B.A. from the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University.

Tsuneo_WatanabeTsuneo Watanabe
Director of Foreign & Security Policy Research, The Tokyo Foundation

Tsuneo Watanabe became a dentist after graduating from the Tohoku University School of Dentistry. Attended the New School for Social Research, where he received his MA in political science. In 1996, became a visiting research scholar at CSIS, going on to become a research associate, fellow, and, in March 2003, a senior fellow. In 2005, returned to Japan.

After serving as a senior fellow at the Mitsui Global Strategic Studies Institute in Tokyo, he assumed his current position. Mr. Watanabe concurrently an adjunct fellow, Center for Strategic and International Studies, and senior fellow, Okinawa Peace Assistance Center.


Donald CDonald_Clarke. Clarke
David Weaver Research Professor of Law, The George Washington University Law School

Prof. Donald C. Clarke, a specialist in Chinese law, joined the Law School faculty in spring 2005 after teaching at the University of Washington School of Law in Seattle and the School of Oriental and African Studies at the University of London, as well as practicing for three years at a major international firm with a large China practice. He is fluent in Mandarin Chinese, and has published extensively in journals such as the China Quarterly and American Journal of Comparative Law on subjects ranging from Chinese criminal law and procedure to corporate governance. His recent research has focused on Chinese legal institutions and the legal issues presented by China’s economic reforms.

In addition to his academic work on Chinese law, Professor Clarke founded and maintains China law (formerly Chinese Law Net), the leading Internet listserv on Chinese law, writes the Chinese Law Prof Blog, is a co-editor of Asian Law Abstracts on the Social Science Research Network, and has often served as an expert witness on matters of Chinese law. Professor Clarke also speaks and reads Japanese and has published translations of Japanese legal scholarship in Law in Japan. He is a member of the New York Bar and the Council on Foreign Relations.

James_FeinermanJames V. Feinerman
James M. Morita Professor of Asian Legal Studies, Georgetown University Law Center

Professor Feinerman received his J.D. from Harvard Law School and Ph.D. in East Asian Languages and Literatures from Yale University, both in 1979. Immediately after law school he studied at Peking University in the People’s Republic of China. Subsequently, he joined the New York firm of Davis Polk & Wardwell as a corporate associate. During 1982-83, Professor Feinerman was Fulbright Lecturer on Law at Peking University. From 1983 until 1985, he was Administrative Director of East Asian Legal Studies and Lecturer on Law at Harvard Law School.

He joined the Georgetown University Law Center faculty as a visiting professor for the 1985-86 academic year. In Fall 1986, he was a Fulbright researcher at Kyoto University in Japan. In 1989, he was awarded a MacArthur Foundation fellowship to study China’s practice of international law. During the 1992-93 academic year, he was a Fellow at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. From 1993-95, on leave from the Law Center, Professor Feinerman was the Director of the Committee on Scholarly Communication with China at the National Academy of Sciences. Professor Feinerman served as Editor-in-Chief of the American Bar Association’s China Law Reporter from 1986-1998. From 2001-2005, he served as Georgetown University Law Center’s Associate Dean for International and Graduate Programs. He spent Spring 2006 as Fulbright Senior Distinguished Lecturer at Tsinghua University Law School in Beijing. Also, Prof. Feinerman was the Co-editor of The Limits of the Rule of Law in China (2001), and Co-Author of China After the WTO: What You Need to Know Now(2001).

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